Team effectiveness models

Team effectiveness models

The Five Dysfunctions of a Team

1. Absence of trust among team members. Essentially, this stems from their unwillingness to be vulnerable within the group (note: this is the “psychological safety" factor I’ve been talking about — Paul). Team members who are not genuinely open with one another about their mistakes and weaknesses make it impossible to build a foundation of trust. 團隊成員間缺乏信任。不願意主動。對其他成員的過錯與缺點心胸不開闊的成員很難建立信任的基礎。

2. Fear of conflict. The failure to build trust is damaging because it sets the tone for the second dysfunction: fear of conflict. Teams that lack trust are incapable of engaging in unfiltered and passionate debate of ideas. Instead, they resort to veiled discussions and guarded comments.害怕衝突。未能建立信任會持續傷害團隊,而且會導致第二個障礙:害怕衝突。缺乏信任的團隊無法進行點子的辯論。相反地,他們會傾向不討論與辯護。

3. Lack of commitment. A lack of healthy conflict is a problem  because it ensures the third dysfunction of a team: lack of commitment.  Without having aired their opinions in the course of passionate and open debate, team members rarely, if ever, buy in and commit to decisions, though they may feign agreement during meetings. 不願承諾。缺乏建設性的衝突是一個大問題。因為它會導致第三個團隊的功能障礙,不願承諾。沒有在議題上激辯以及貢獻自己的意見,團隊很少會接下決策的責任,對決策承諾,儘管它們在會議中都同意。

4. Avoidance of accountability.  Because of this lack of real commitment and buy-in, team members develop an avoidance of accountability, the fourth dysfunction.  Without committing to a clear plan of action, even the most focused and driven people often hesitate to call their peers on actions and behaviors that seem counterproductive to the good of the team.拒絕承擔。因為缺乏承諾與責任感,團隊會衍生出避免承擔的模式,第四種功能障礙。不願意對一個清楚的計劃承諾,甚至是最專注及最有行動力的人都會在行動之前遲疑,表現得好像那行動會對團隊有害一樣。

5. Inattention to results.  Failure to hold one another accountable creates an environment where the fifth dysfunction can thrive.  Inattention to results occurs when team members put their individual needs (such as ego, career development, or recognition) or even the needs of their divisions above the collective goals of the team.對結果不積極。拒絕承擔導致一個第五種孤能障礙發生的環境。當團隊成員把自己的需求(自我意識,職涯,自我認可),或是部門的需求置於團隊的目標之上時,就會發生對結果不積極的現象。

Lencioni’s model

1. It must be a REAL TEAM.  [Hackman, 2002]

必須是一個真正的團隊。
工作必須適合這個團隊執行。
在工作進行中團員必須互相依賴。
團隊成員與否有一個明顯標準。
團隊必須被清楚的授權進行他們的工作。
團隊成員必須是穩定的。
團隊的組成必須基於不同的技術能力,功能,文化,與經驗。
2. Compelling Direction.  [Hackman, 2002; Locke & Latham, 2002]
明確的方向,必須有一個重要的目標驅動團隊的意圖,鼓勵新策略的發展。
3. Enabling Structure [Hackman, 2002]
任務,角色,責任必須明確並適合各位成員。
4. Supportive Context [Hackman, 2002; Ginnett, 1990; Edmondson, 1996, 1999]

團隊的支援項目。

心理的安全性,團隊需要一個共存的信仰。這種信仰可以讓團隊安全地承認錯誤,指出錯誤,警告潛在風險。
獎勵,獎勵會鼓勵成員做出期待的行為,減少成員做出不預期的行為。
教育,有訓練及未來發展的機會。
資訊,團隊間的資訊與回饋管道順暢並能讓工作進行地更順利。
資原,存在有適當的工具與環境。
5. Expert Coaching [Hackman & Wageman, 2005; Katz, 2001]

專家的指引

來自團隊外的專家可以讓團隊表現地更有效率。
激勵因子,可以加強成員的正確表現,減少惰性。
顧問,提供可以加強效率的策略,避免犯錯的規範,確保工作與任務目標一致。
教育訓練,增強知識與技能。

Organizational Perception of Failure

1. This organization encourages taking creative risks, regardless of outcome. 組織鼓勵冒險,而不是收入。

2. We discuss our failures openly in this organization. 團隊會公開檢討失敗。

3. Novel ideas are celebrated at this organization even if they don’t achieve their intended result.團隊鼓勵新點子,甚至不管有甚麼實質回饋。

4. I am hesitant to take creative risks in this organization. (reverse-scored).我對於提出冒險的提議很遲疑。

5. I feel comfortable sharing my creative attempts with my superiors.對我的上級,我很自然的告訴他我的冒險設計。

.6. If a client doesn’t like an idea, it’s quickly swept under the rug. (reverse-scored).假如客戶不喜歡目前的設計,很快就會被拿掉。

7. People tend to keep failed ideas to themselves in this organization.  (reverse-scored).團員頃向避而不談失敗的設計

 

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