[翻譯] An Introduction to Situational Leadership 情境領導入門

參考資料:http://blog.agilegamedevelopment.com/2013/10/an-introduction-to-situational.html

An Introduction to Situational Leadership

 情境領導入門

Imagine you are the leader of a team of developers creating a new mobile game.  The team has worked well together, but recently you’ve noticed that two of the senior members are butting heads.  Today, they are really getting into it, arguing in front of the rest of the team.  You can tell that this is having an impact on the morale and effectiveness of the team.

想像一下你是一個新遊戲專案團隊的領導人。團隊氣氛很好,但最近兩個資深成員會勾心鬥角。今天情勢又更加糟糕,他們在其他成員面前吵架。你應該告訴他們這會打擊團隊士氣,降低大家的工作效率。

Do you:

你會怎麼做?

  • Meet with both of them and tell them how they can resolve their conflict and make sure they do it? 與他們兩個好好談談,告訴他們如何解決之間的衝突,然後持續追蹤確保狀況真的解除?
  • Speak with them separately about the problem, and then get them together to discuss it.  Encourage them to work better together and support their attempts at improving collaboration? 分別與他們談,然後再一起討論。鼓勵他們化解恩怨,支持他們朝向齊心合作的方向?
  • Talk to them separately to get their thoughts, then bring them together and show them how to work out the conflict between their ideas? 分別與他們談,然後再招集他們,告訴他們該如何解決他們的衝突。
  • Tell them you are concerned about the problem and the impact of it on the team, but give them time to work it out by themselves? 告訴他們你注意到了問題,以及對團隊的影響,然後給他們一些時間自己解決。

Which is the best answer?  It depends on the team.  Teams have different levels of maturity that must be matched with a leadership style best suited to it.  By “maturity”, I don’t mean how grown-up they act; we game developers don’t usually care much about that.  In this context, maturity means the skills the team applies to work out problems among themselves and their performance as a team.  We want teams with high levels of maturity because they are more effective and enjoy working together the most.  This is where situational leadership comes in.

哪一個解決方法比較好?其實依照團隊情況而定。不同的團隊有不同的成熟與專業,分別適合不同的領導風格。雖然談到成熟兩字,但這邊並不是期待團隊會越來越成熟。遊戲開發者通常不太關心成熟這件事,在此文中成熟度指得是團隊解決問題的方式,以及團隊的效率。我們預期團隊有著高成熟度,那是指團隊效率高,而且能相處融洽。這篇是在講情境領導能帶來的用處。

Situational Leadership Theory

情境領導理論

Developed in the late 1970’s by Paul Hershey and Ken Blanchard, Situational Leadership is a set of principles that help guide how leadership is applied to teams of differing maturity levels.  They defined four leadership categories:

情境領導是由 Paul Hershey 與 Ken Blanchard 提出,他是一連串的守則,幫助指引領導如何套用在不同成熟度的團隊。總共定義了四個類別:

  1. Directing – A leader defines roles and tasks for developers and the team. 指導,領導者定義團隊的角色與工作。
  2. Coaching – A leader still sets the direction for the team, but coaches the team in the how roles and tasks are determined.  Allows the team more freedom in tracking their work. 教練,領導人設定目標,但在旁說明角色與工作應是如何。讓團隊試著自己追蹤工作。
  3. Supporting – A leader allows the team to make decisions about roles and tasks, but still shares in decision-making and progress monitoring. 支持,領導者允許團隊自己決定角色及工作。但會緊盯決策流程與進度。
  4. Delegating – A leader is involved in decision making and progress monitoring, but the team is fully self-organizing in their roles, practices and work. 委任,領導者自己也是決策與進度的參與者,但團隊實際上自己組織,運作。

The goal of a leader is to help teams adopt higher levels of maturity and change their approach to leading from directing through delegating:

領導者的目標是幫助團隊成長為高成熟度的團隊,然後從指導改變為委任。

The Situational Leadership Model

This is just a model, not reality, but it is an effective model to help guide leaders to apply different standards to different teams, just as a parent applies different parenting principles to a teenager than they do a toddler;  at least I wish my parents had.

這僅僅是一個理論,而非現實,但這理論對於指引領導者在不同的團隊套用不同的領導風格很有效。就像是雙親在青少年成長的時候有不同的角色一樣。至少我是這樣期望的。

Situational Leadership Applied

Take a look at the answers to the question raised above and see how each of them might apply to teams at different maturity levels.  A newly formed team will most likely need the directing (S1) category applied, while others that have been together longer and are working well can have later categories applied.

看看前面那一個情境與那些答案,看看各自該如何套用到不同等級的團隊。新團隊通常會是指引的層級,其它的則會依照團隊成熟度而定。

The challenges to this are identifying the maturity level of the team, including what model to use, and coaching teams to reach higher levels of maturity.  Future articles will address those topics.

如何辨別團隊的成熟度是一個挑戰,包含該用甚麼樣的理論模型,如何輔佐團隊提高成熟度。未來我們會說明的更多。

 

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